Presentation Goal: To generate arguments/proposals for the entire Post-Kyoto Agreement

8 General Topics

1. Architecture

2. Adaptation

3. WEO

4. Energy and Universal Standards

5. Technology

6. Enforcement & Compliance

7. Social Development

8. Displacement


READ: Familiarize yourself with the Bali Action Plan which is the most recent UNFCCC Plan. It has lots of pertinent information on many of the topics below.


1. Architecture


2013-2053: 10 year reassessment periods (1 year prior, review and assessment)

4 Annex System: Categories based on HDI


A. Emissions Targets as primary Framework?

* Peak levels/year?

* Stabilization for Annex I and II

* Baseline year

* Proposed:

* Annex I 80% below 2000 levels in 2053 and 20% every 10 yr period (2023; 2033; 2043)

* Annex II 40% below 2013 levels in 2053 and 10% every 10yr period (baseline option: 2000, 2005, or 2013)

* Annex III?? 20% below 2013 levels in 2053? (baseline?)

* Other Options to consider

B. Trading? How is it setup? Permits/Auctions? How are the permits distributed? See your readings and UNFCCC/Kyoto.


* What is the objective? Kyoto says it is to stimulate "sustainable development"

* What type of projects?

* 500k buyin? Time frame for implementation?

* Who qualifies for it? Annex II, III and/or IV???

D. China, India and Russia: Strict transition based on HDI? or Either HDI and/or specific year transition?

E. Historic Emissions?


2. Adaptation

See: Adaptation Framework: Adaptation in the Post-2012 Framework



* Vulnerability as key determining variable

* Agree on 4 categories of vulnerability (Most Vulnerable, Extremely Vulnerable Highly Vulnerable, and Vulnerable)??

* Use GDP and EVI to determine the categories

* Only Annex III and IV Countries qualify for "vulnerability" categorization

* Funding: .15% GDP from Annex I and .8% from Annex II, with pub/private financing covering an additional 20%. Total contribution is about $90b/yr. $71b guaranteed.


A. What does "adaptation" mean? This will determine what the funds go to...

B. Who will control funding and what projects?

C. What would funding cover? Strictly climate effects? If so, how do you determine what is a "climate impact"?

* Greenhouse Development Rights, Summary and/or Full Report

* Global Marshal Plan (see initiative and/or wiki)

* Adaptation Framework: Adaptation in the Post-2012 Framework

D. Disaster Funding? How much? What is a "disaster"? Do Annex I and II countries qualify?


E. Capacity Building? How? To what extent? Tied in with Tech xfer? See UNFCCC on Adaptive Capacity

Interesting (short) article on vulnerability discussion for Copenhagen


3. WEO (agreed on creation)

A. What is the structure of WEO? How many sub-orgs?

B. Define the sub-organizations and what would they do and be responsible for?

C. How will the sub-orgs or overall WEO be represented?

D. Other Issues: Veto Power? Is it an autonomous entity to govern states or like UN?

E. How is it paid for? Dues? How much? In addition to UN?



4. Energy and Universal Standards (Sectoral Targets)

** Google "Japan's Top Runner" Approach


A. Transportation:

* Auto Standards (fuel effeciency), #s of hybrids/electric cars

* Aviation standards? Regulations?

* Fuel Standards?

* Infrastructure: public transportation standards?


B. Renewables

* GHG Abatement (e.g. CSS): Standards?

* Energy Effeciency standards (AC/Refrig)

* Energy sources: % of renewables?

*What is a renewable? biofuels?


C. Deforestation

D. Population Growth

E. Consumption standards? Consumption Tax?


Some Qs For Renewable Energy:

* Main sources of alternative and renewable energy and their generating capacity.
* Amount of GHG’s and aerosols emissions abated with each energy source.
* Expected costs of each energy source.
* Projected growth rate of each energy source.
* Influence of each energy source on specific sectors of your economy (industrial, transportation, agricultural, commercial, etc.).
* Financial mechanisms used to promote the use of alternative or renewable energy in your country (e.g. subsidies, tax rebates, mandates, etc.).


5. Technology and Technology Transfer

* Look at Kyoto on Technology Transfer and COP 7 (2001) on TT

* Updated Handbook on Technology and Climate Change (Just came out)--big document, but leaf through it.

* Familiarize with "Technology Needs Assessment

* UNFCCC considers 5 aspects:

* Technology needs & needs assessments
* Technology information
* Enabling environments
* Capacity building
* Mechanisms for technology transfer



6. Enforcement and Compliance

* How would the agreement be enforced?

* Penalities/fines?

* tie into larger financial/economic/trade sectors?

* How do you create voluntary compliance; possible?

* Climate litigation?



7. Social Development


* Development and Poverty Alleviation

* Education: See UNFCCC on Education and Awareness

* Health and Disease (e.g. new diseases b/c of GCC like Malaria)

* Protection of culture and ways of life

* Psychological security

* Improved procedures and access to climate negotiations and norm-making



8. Displacement and Climate Refugees

* How do you address migration from climate impacts?

* difference for climate refugees?

* Funding?

* Differentiate temporary displacement (e.g. surge wave or heat wave) from permenant displacement

* Place for refugees?